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new & recent described Flora & Fauna species from all over the World esp. Asia, Oriental, Indomalayan & Malesiana region
Members of the cephalopod family Sepiadariidae Fischer, 1882, commonly called ‘bottletail squids’, are known primarily from the Indo-Pacific and southwest Pacific. To date, only one species is known to occur in New Zealand waters: Sepioloidea pacifica (Kirk, 1882). However, researchers have long suspected the presence of additional species in the genus Sepioloidea d’Orbigny, 1845 in Férussac & d’Orbigny 1835-1848. The majority of known Sepioloidea material from New Zealand national collections was examined; both morphological and, where available, molecular characters are compared. As a result, two new species, Sepioloidea virgilioi sp. nov. and Sepioloidea jaelae sp. nov., are recognised and described. Diagnostic morphological characters include the tentacular club sucker arrangement and hectocotylus structure. Molecular data support the recognition of these two new taxa, with sampled populations of each of the three available Sepioloidea falling within three monophyletic clades following analysis of COI (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I) sequence data. The minimum interspecific distance is 11.09%—far greater than the maximum intraspecific distance (1.57%). A revised diagnosis for S. pacifica sensu stricto is also provided.
Keywords: Sepiolida, Taxonomy, Southwest Pacific, DNA barcode, COI
Left: whole organism sketch.
Upper centre and upper right: whole organism shortly after capture [credit: Rob Stewart, NIWA, New Zealand].
Jaever M. Santos, Kathrin S. R. Bolstad and Heather E. Braid. 2022. Two New ‘Bottletail Squids’ (Cephalopoda: Sepiadariidae: Sepioloidea) from New Zealand, with New Observations on Sepioloidea pacifica (Kirk, 1882). Marine Biodiversity. 52: 26. DOI: 10.1007/s12526-021-01247-z
Deep dark dumplings: Two new bottletail squids from New Zealand
In the last decades, a remarkable fauna of psammophilous and fossorial squamates was discovered in sandy habitats of the semiarid Caatinga of northeast Brazil. Despite the increasing accumulation of genetic data from this unique fauna, an incomplete knowledge of its diversity still hampers a better understanding of its origins and diversification. The fossorial lizard genus Calyptommatus (Gymnophthalmidae) is endemic to sandy habitats of the Caatinga, being currently represented by four allopatric species. In this study, we used morphological and molecular data to assess population-level variation in Calyptommatus. We found a new morphotype of Calyptommatus from the state of Bahia, Brazil, readily distinguished from congeners by the presence of a frontal scale. Morphological, nuDNA and geographic data support the recognition of a new species herein described as Calyptommatus frontalis sp. nov. Nevertheless, genetic data revealed mito-nuclear+morphology discordance, with populations with frontal scales distributed in three distantly related mtDNA clades, suggesting either potential historical and/or current introgressions or incomplete lineage sorting. Further data are needed to clarify the status of the two other mtDNA clades displaying a frontal scale.
Paratype of Calyptommatus frontalis sp. nov. in life from Brejo do Poção, Buritirama, state of Bahia, northeast Brazil.
Renato Sousa Recoder, Sergio Marques-Souza, Thiago Silva-Soares, Carolina Nisa Ramiro, Thiago Marcial Castro and Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues. 2022. Morphological Variation and Genealogical Discordance in Caatinga Sand Lizards Calyptommatus Rodrigues 1991 (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae) with the Description of A New Species. Zootaxa. 5129(3); 374-398. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.5129.3.3
Permian gastropods from Thailand have been extensively studied over the last few years. The earliest known fossil collection was recovered in 1967 but has never been figured or described. Here, we document this historically important gastropod assemblage excavated from the upper-Lower to Middle Permian Ratburi Group of Khao Mang Lat in the Ban Kao District of Kanchanaburi Province, Central Thailand. The material comprises approximately 200 specimens, almost all of which represent a new species, Peruvispira kanchanaburiensis sp. nov. (Goniasmatidae), together with a single individual of Orthonychia sp. (Orthonychiidae = Platyceratidae). This exceptionally low-diversity community is unusual in comparison to Permian gastropod faunas reported from elsewhere, and could reflect either a low temperature palaeoenvironmental setting or priority effects resulting from early establishment of planktotrophic larvae within the local habitat.
Baran Karapunar, Alexander Nützel and Chatchalerm Ketwetsuriya. 2022. A Low-diversity Peruvispira-dominated Gastropod Assemblage from the Permian Ratburi Group of Central Thailand. Alcheringa: An Australasian Journal of Palaeontology. DOI: 10.1080/03115518.2022.2050814
Curcuma sixsensesensisandCurcuma vinhlinhensis, two new species belonging to subgenus Ecomata from Coastal Central Vietnam, are described and illustrated in the present articles. The C. sixsensesensis easily gets confused with C. newmanii Škorni?k. in compact rhizome; short lateral inflorescence composing of a few bracts; white corolla lobes and lateral staminodes; white labellum with a yellow mid-rid band but readily distinguished in rhomboid lateral staminodes (vs. obovate) with apex acuminated (vs. rounded); labellum 3-lobed (vs. emarginated), a mid-rid band being yellow at apex half, white at the base (vs. yellow throughout); anther crest presented (vs. reduced); oblong (lightly arching) (vs. L- shaped) anther in side view with slender and inward-pointing (vs. stout and outward-facing) spurs. The second one is similar to C. pambrosima Škorni?k. & N. S. Lý in general habit and shape of the spike but differs in reduced ligule ca. 1 (vs. 4-5) mm long; lateral staminodes orange throughout (vs. yellow at apex, white at base), elliptic with round apex (vs. unequally ovate-rhomboid with acute apex); anther spurs elongate into the acute apex, outward-facing (vs. curved inward), ca. 2-3 (vs. ca. 1,5) mm long, anther crest reduced, up to 0.5 mm, 2-lobed (vs. prominent anther crest, ca. 1.5 mm apex round). Data for each described species comprises standard citation of type specimens, description, proposed species epithet etymology, data on ecology and distribution, and short taxonomic notes and morphological comparison of these new species with its allies species, a revised key to species of Curcuma sect. Ecomata in Vietnam is included.
Keywords:Curcuma sixsensesensis, C. vinhlinhensis, Khanh Hoa, Quang Tri, Zingiberaceae
Curcuma sixsensesensis D.D. Nguyen & T.A. Le: A. habitat; B. and C. inflorescences with opening flowers; D. habit with rhizome and young inflorescence; E. habit with a leafy shoot at late anthesis; F. ligule; H-H”: detail of anther; I: ovary with epigynous glands; J: detail of calyx apex.
Photographed by Six Senses Ninh Van Bay team (A—E, H, G from type specimen LTA-1220);
T.A.Le (G’, H’, H”, I, J, F from specimen LTA-1220 treated alcohol)
Curcuma sixsensesensis D.D. Nguyen & T.A. Le, sp. nov.
Diagnosis: New species is similar to C. newmanii Škorničk. in a compact rhizome, short lateral inflorescence composed of a few bracts, white corolla lobes and lateral staminodes, white labellum with the yellow mid-rid band but readily distinguished in lateral staminodes being rhomboid (vs. obovate) with apex acuminated (vs. rounded); labellum 3-lobed (vs. emarginated), the mid-rid band being yellow at apex half, white at the base (vs. yellow throughout); anther crest presented (vs. reduced); oblong (lightly arching) (vs. L- shaped) anther in side view with slender and inward-pointing (vs. stout and outward facing) spurs.
Etymology: The specific epithet sixsensesensis is derived from Six Senses Ninh Van Bay Resort, the name of an ecology resort where the new species occur around and thanks to the resort management board for supporting our floristic investigation as long as conserving the wild environment around.
Habitat, ecology and phenology. Under the canopy of
coastal semi-deciduous forests at elevations 150–200 m.
The flowering period coincides with the beginning of the
rainy season in Coastal Central Vietnam from August to
Curcuma vinhlinhensis D.D. Nguyen & T.A. Le: A. habit; B. flower in front view; C. single flower with calyx tube D. Rhizome; E. inflorescence; F. lamia with petiole; G. ligule; H. bracts (from left: bracts at the base to the top of inflorescence); I. flower dissection (from left: calyx, dorsal and lateral corolla lobes, lateral staminode, labellum, a floral tube attached stamen, ovary and epigynous glands).
Photographed by T.A. Le
Curcuma vinhlinhensis D.D. Nguyen & T.A. Le sp. nov.
Diagnosis. similar to C. pambrosima Škorničk. & N.S.Lý in general habit and shape of the spike but differs in lateral staminodes being orange throughout (vs. yellow at apex, white at base), elliptic with round apex (vs. unequally ovate-rhomboid with acute apex), anther spurs conical, elongated into the acute apex, outward-facing (vs. cylindrical, curved inward), ca. 2-3 (vs. ca. 1,5) mm long, reduced anther crest up to 0.5 mm, 2-lobed (vs. prominent anther crest ca. 1.5 mm, apex round)
Etymology: The specific epithet vinhlinhensis is derived from Vinh Linh District, the hometown of the third author, where this species was first collected.
Habitat, ecology and phenology. Cultivated on Bazan soil by local people as a source of starch for traditional food in the elevation of about 0-100 m. The flowering period coincides with the beginning of the rainy season in Coastal Central Vietnam from August to October.
Danh Duc Nguyen, Tuan Anh Le, Quoc Huy Hoang, Quoc Thuong Le and Emmy Nguyen. 2022. Two New Taxa of Curcuma sect. Ecomata (Zingiberaceae: Zingibereae), from coastal Central Vietnam. Biodiversitas. 23: 2512-2519. smujo.id/biodiv/article/view/10603
Garcinia yaatapsap (Clusiaceae), a new species from northern Myanmar, is described and illustrated. The new species is most similar to G. stipulata and G. nujiangensis, but differs primarily by its subsessile, subcordate to cordate leaves and strongly angled branchlets (versus petiolate, cuneate leaves and terete branches in G. stipulata and G. nujiangensis).
Garcinia yaatapsapK. Armstr. & P.W. Sweeney, A. Branch with staminate flowers. B. Apex of branch showing leaf bases, young leaves, and stipuliform structures. C. Part of staminate infloresence. D. Staminate flower. E. Cross section of androecium and pistillode with close-up views of stamens and an anther. F. Branch with fruits. G. View of abaxial leaf surface.
Illustration by Bobbi Angell.
Garcinia yaatapsapK. Armstr. & P.W. Sweeney, A. Apex of branch showing leaf bases, young leaves, and stipuliform structures (indicated by arrow). B. Staminate flowers. C. Branch with fruits. D. Branch with leaves.
Scale bars: A, B = 5 mm, C = 1 cm, D = 2 cm.
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Type:—MYANMAR. Sagaing Region: Hkamti District, Hkamti Township, Htamanthi Wildlife Sanctuary, Just upstream from Nam Eizu camp 1,184 m. a.s.l., 25.537833°, 95.465861°, 11 September 2016, K. Armstrong, D. Daly, P. P. Hnin, T. Y. Nwe, L. Zaw, K. Z. Aung, H. Aung 1406 (holotype NY [NY02654830]!; isotypes E!, RAF!).
Diagnosis:—Garcinia yaatapsap is similar to G. stipulata T.Anderson in Hooker (1874: 267) and G. nujiangensis C.Y.Wu & Y.H.Li in Li (1981: 494), but branchlets distinctly 4-sided and winged on angles (particularly distally) (vs. terete); leaf bases subcordate to cordate (vs. cuneate); leaves nearly sessile, petiole length to leaf blade length ratio smaller (ca. <1:25 vs. >1:16).
Distribution and Habitat:—Garcinia yaatapsap has only been collected four times in the vicinity of Htamanthi Wildlife Sanctuary (Fig. 3) and is likely to be endemic to this area of the upper Chindwin Basin. This species occurs from 123-184 m a.s.l. in the Kachin-Sagaing low elevation evergreen subtropical rainforest ecosystem (Armstrong et al. 2020; Murray et al. 2020), which is a lowland (ca. 100-300 m a.s.l.) evergreen closed forest ecosystem in northern Myanmar, where there is abundant rainfall (2,000+ mm) and generally moist conditions.
Etymology:—The specific epithet “yaatapsap” is the Shan-ni (Red Shan) vernacular name for the plant, which translates as “medicine to join the liver [back together]”. This epithet is constructed as a noun in apposition. Locally, a tea made from Garcinia yaatapsap is used as tonic for repairing a damaged liver due to drinking excess alcohol.
Patrick W. Sweeney, Thet Yu Nwe and Kate E. Armstrong. 2022. Garcinia yaatapsap (Clusiaceae), A New Species from northern Myanmar. Phytotaxa. 545(2); 121-127. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.545.2.1
We describe a new species of salamander of the genus Bolitoglossa from the Cordillera de Talamanca in western Panama. The new species is distinct from its congeners by its dorsal and ventral coloration, finger and toe webbing, and a comparatively high maxillary teeth count in relation to SVL. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences revealed an isolated phylogenetic position of the new species which is related to the B. robinsoni, B. subpalmata and B. epimela species groups, all four of which form a subclade within the subgenus Eladinea.
Keywords: Amphibia, Bolitoglossa cathyledecae sp. nov., La Amistad International Park, DNA barcoding, Eladinea, Serranía de Talamanca.
Holotype ofBolitoglossa cathyledecae sp. nov. (MHCH 3240) in life; A–B) Details of head; C–D) Body coloration in life.
Photograph by Marcos Ponce.
Bolitoglossa cathyledecae sp. nov.
Chiriqui fire salamander,
Salamandra de fuego chiricana
Diagnosis: Assigned to genus Bolitoglossa due to having fewer than 14 costal grooves and lacking a sublingual fold, and to subgenus Eladinea based on mtDNA sequence data. Bolitoglossa cathyledecae is differentiated from all known species of the subgenus Eladinea by the combination of the following characters: (1) Unique coloration consisting of pinkish-flesh with flame-scarlet speckles, ventral salmon color; (2) Moderately small size with wide head HW/SVL=0.21; (3) moderate -sized extremities; (4) digits with moderate to extensive webbing on the hands and feet; (5) prehensile and considerably longer tail than body TL/SVL=1.5; (6) high tooth counts: premaxillary (7), maxillary teeth (78).
Etymology. The specific epithet of this beautiful new species honors Cathy Ledec, a passionate conservationist and long-time supporter of conservational organizations working to preserve the habitat of salamanders in the Neotropics.
Distribution. Bolitoglossa cathyledecae is known only from one site within the montane rain forest life zone (sensu Holdridge 1967) along the northeastern mid-elevation slopes of the Cordillera de Talamanca, in the vicinity of the continental divide between Chiriquí and Bocas del Toro, within the La Amistad National Park, district Boquete, at about 1900 m above sea level.
Bolitoglossa cathyledecae sp. nov. Color variation in the paratypes. A) Dorsum in daytime coloration (MHCH 3242); B-C) Details of head and dorsum in daytime coloration (MHCH 3241); D) Paratype at the moment of encounter at night (MHCH 3242).
Photographs taken by Marcos Ponce.
Marcos Ponce, Deivy Navarro, Roger Morales and Abel Batista. 2022. A New Salamander of the Genus Bolitoglossa (Caudata: Plethodontidae) from the highlands of western Panama. Zootaxa. 5129(4); 543-556. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.5129.4.4
Premise of research. The Capella region in central Queensland has yielded diverse, three-dimensionally preserved, permineralized floras that are associated with 32–28 Ma Cenozoic volcanics. A new fossil infructescence that was recently discovered from a new locality is shown to have affinities with Pandanus Parkinson, and it is described herein asPandanus estellae sp. nov.
Methodology. The affinities of the material were assessed according to a literature review of families that have syncarpous fruits or cones. The specimen was studied and photographed using conventional macromorphological approaches. Micro–computed tomography scanning was used to ascertain whether the internal structure of the fruit was preserved.
Pivotal results. The single infructescence consists of several basally connate segments that lack a clear phyllotactic pattern and are variable in size and shape; the external surface of each segment is irregularly pentagonal-hexagonal and strongly coalescent. Each segment is interpreted as multicarpellate. Collectively, these features allow interpretation of the fossil as syncarpous, and the morphological features support placement in the monocot family Pandanaceae. The arrangement of segments is consistent with the polydrupes that characterize most species of Pandanus, but the small size of the infructescence of P. estellae differs from fruits of modern species in the genus, which are typically much larger. The anatomy of P. estellae is not preserved. The inferred Early Oligocene age for the fossil fruit predates current estimates, which are based on molecular data and limited calibration points, by about 8–10 Myr for the split of Benstonea Callm. and Buerki from Pandanus.
Conclusions. The new species P. estellae is significant because it provides credible pre-Pleistocene evidence of the genus and is the oldest unequivocal fruit of Pandanus currently known. Its occurrence in Australia supports a Gondwanan history for the family.
Pandanus estellae sp. nov.
Andrew C. Rozefelds, Paula J. Rudall, Matt C. Herne, Anita K. Milroy and Joe Bridgeman. 2022. A Fossil Syncarpous Fruit from Australia Provides Support for a Gondwanan History for the Screw Pines (Pandanus, Pandanaceae). International Journal of Plant Sciences. 183(4); DOI: 10.1086/719431
Tonoscolex kalimpongensisAhmed & Julka sp. nov. is described from Neora Valley National Park in the Kalimpong district of West Bengal, India. The new species is easily distinguished by the presence of one pair of spermathecal pores at intersegmental furrow 7/8. An updated checklist of the genus Tonoscolex and an identification key to the Indian Tonoscolex species are provided as well.
Keywords: Annelida, checklist, earthworm, India, new species, taxonomy
Shakoor Ahmed, K. G. Emiliyamma, Nithyanandam Marimuthu, Sheikh Sajan and J. M. Julka. 2022. A New Species of the Genus Tonoscolex Gates, 1933 (Clitellata: Megascolecidae) from India. Zootaxa. 5124(3); 375-382. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.5124.3.6
During a scientific survey, a new genus of driftwood hopper was found in mangrove roots in Ko Kut District, Trat Province, Thailand. We placed this new genus,Thailandorchestia gen. nov., within the family Protorchestiidae. The new genus can be distinguished from the remaining genera by uropod 1 outer ramus with robust setae, uropod 2 outer ramus without robust setae, and pereopod 7 basis without a posterodistal lobe. The type species of Thailandorchestia gen. nov.,Thailandorchestia rhizophila sp. nov., is described herein, and an updated key to the genera of the family Protorchestiidae is provided.
Keywords: Description, Ko Kut District, marsh hopper, Talitroidea, Thailandorchestia gen. nov.
Thailandorchestia rhizophila sp. nov.
a holotype, male, 8.04 mm, THNHM-Iv- 18760
b allotype, female, 7.80 mm, THNHM-IV- 18961
c rotting mangrove log, habitat of Thailandorchestia rhizophila sp. nov.
Thailandorchestia rhizophila sp. nov. holotype, male, 8.04 mm, THNHM-Iv- 18760.
Scale bars: 1 mm.
Order Amphipoda Latreille, 1816
Suborder Senticaudata Lowry & Myers, 2013
Family Protorchestiidae Myers & Lowry, 2020
Genus Thailandorchestia gen. nov.
Diagnosis: Protorchestiidae with maxilliped palp article 2 distomedial lobe absent. Mandible left lacinia mobilis 4-dentate. Gnathopod 2 coxal gill simple. Pereopod 4 carpus significantly shorter than carpus of pereopod 3. Pereopods 6–7 sexually dimorphic (male merus and carpus incrassate). Pereopod 7 posterodistal lobe absent. Uropod 1 peduncle distolateral robust setae present, very large (1/3–1/2 length of outer ramus); inner ramus linear, not modified; outer ramus with marginal robust setae. Uropod 2 outer ramus without marginal robust setae. Uropod 3 peduncle with 2 robust setae; ramus shorter than peduncle, linear (narrowing). Telson apically incised, with 2 robust setae per lobe.
Etymology: The generic name, Thailandorchestia gen. nov., is derived from “Thailand” in combination with the Orchestia stem.
Type locality: Mangrove forest near Ban Ao Prao Beach (11°35'40.2"N, 102°33'52.6"E), Trat Province, Thailand.
Ecological type: Driftwood hoppers (virtually confined to rotting driftwood where they live in galleries, consuming rotting driftwood and reproducing with relatively small broods).
Thailandorchestia rhizophila sp. nov.
Diagnosis: As for the genus unless otherwise stated. Antenna 1 long, reaching from midpoint to end of article 5 of antenna 2 peduncle. Eye medium (1/5–1/3 of head length). Gnathopod 1 not sexually dimorphic, palm transverse, dactylus shorter than palm. Gnathopod 2 sexually dimorphic (male subchelate, female mitten-shaped). Pleopod 1 outer ramus subequal in length to peduncle. Pleopod 3 outer ramus longer than peduncle.
Ecology: Driftwood hoppers, living inside rotten logs and mangrove roots in the softest part under the bark. The mangrove forest is located near a small creek 50 meters from the beach. The sediment in the forest is muddy sand mixed with leaf litter.
Etymology: The specific epithet refers to the habitat of this amphipod, which is also found inside mangrove roots.
Habitat: Mangrove wood, inside roots and rotting logs.
Distribution: Thailand, Ko Kut District, Inner Gulf of Thailand.
Koraon Wongkamhaeng, Pongrat Dumrongrojwattana, Ratchaneewarn Sumitrakij and Tosaphol Saetung Keetapithchayakul. 2022. Thailandorchestia rhizophila sp. nov., A New Genus and Species of Driftwood Hopper (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Protorchestiidae) from Thailand. ZooKeys. 1099: 139-153. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.1099.82949
Over 80 species of hypocrealean fungi are reported as pathogens of spiders and harvestmen. Among these fungi, the genus Gibellula is highly regarded as a specialised spider-killer that has never been reported to infect other arthropods. While more than 20 species of Gibellula are known, few attempts to identify the infected spiders have been made despite the fact that the host specificity can help identify the fungal species. Here, we morphologically describe and illustrate eight new species of Gibellula and three new records from Thailand of known species along with the multi-gene phylogeny that clearly showed the segregation among the proposed species. Examination of the Gibellula-infected spider hosts identified Oxyopidae, Uloboridae and, for the first time, the ant-mimicking genus Myrmarachne.
Keywords:Gibellula; araneogenous fungus; new taxa; spider predator
Kuephadungphan, W.; Petcharad, B.; Tasanathai, K.; Thanakitpipattana, D.; Kobmoo, N.; Khonsanit, A.; Samson, R.A. and Luangsa-ard, J.J. 2022. Multi-locus Phylogeny unmasks Hidden Species within the Specialised Spider-parasitic Fungus, Gibellula (Hypocreales, Cordycipitaceae) in Thailand. Studies in Mycology. DOI: 10.3114/sim.2022.101.04
An attempt to analyse the taxonomy of the genus Solaropsis, aiming to allocate a new species collected in Rio Cajari Extractive Reserve, Laranjal do Jari, Amapá State, Brazil, revealed that a nebula of uncertainties surrounds the genus, from the family level to the validity of several species. An initial taxonomic treatment is given for some taxa herein, resulting in modifications such as S. pellisserpentis (Gmelin, 1791) as an objective synonym of S. undata ([Lightfoot], 1786); and S. cicatricata (Beck, 1853) as the oldest name of the depression-bearing species. This taxonomic treatment is intended only to allow the description of the new species. Solaropsis caperata is, thus, introduced, having as its main distinguishing features the globose shell, strongly depressed half a whorl before the peristome, slightly convex whorls, large aperture and umbilicus, and cream colour with brown spots.
Fernanda S. Silva, Raimundo N.G. Mendes-Júnior and Luiz Ricardo L. Simone. 2022. A New Species of Solaropsis from Amapá , Brazil (Gastropoda: Solaropsidae) triggering uncertainty about the Genus and Redefinition of Some Species. Journal of Natural History. 56(1-4); 79-89. DOI: 10.1080/00222933.2022.2033333
Geographically, widespread Neotropical fish lineages offer opportunities to reconstruct historical biogeography patterns and infer processes leading to modern ichthyological diversity and distribution. The characiform family Prochilodontidae is well suited for such reconstruction because their migrations limit population substructure within river systems. Therefore, their biogeographic history should match closely the history of connectivity among Neotropical river basins. Here, we combine a time-calibrated phylogeny with biogeographic model testing to recover the history of this family's diversification. Results support the Miocene rise of the Andean Eastern Cordillera as a dispersal barrier, but also indicate a much earlier Eocene origin of the trans-Andean genus Ichthyoelephas. Despite the early origin of the family and its three constituent genera, most prochilodontid lineages originated during the Miocene in Greater Amazonia, likely due to drainage reorganizations caused by Andean uplift. Subsequent speciation appears linked to interbasin exchanges and expansions of Amazonian lineages into Brazilian coastal systems. The modern richness of Prochilodus in easterly drainages appears to be relatively young, with only Prochilodus vimboides likely reaching that region prior to the late Miocene. The rise of the Vaupes Arch coincides with two splits between Orinocoan and Amazonian lineages circa 9 million years ago (Ma). However, two instances of later dispersal between these drainages reveal the permeability of the Vaupes Arch, suggesting that it may promote periodic speciation. This study illustrates how model-based biogeographic studies of widespread groups can reconstruct historic paths of dispersal and help reveal how landscape evolution promoted modern diversity patterns.
Time-calibrated phylogeny and ancestral range evolution of Prochilodontidae estimated by BEAST and BioGeoBEARS.
Photos by A. Nobile (Prochilodus lineatus), B. Melo (Semaprochilodus insignis, P. nigricans1, P. rubrotaeniatus2), J. García-Melo (Ichthyoelephas longirostris), M. Sabaj (S. varii, P. magdalenae, P. nigricans2) and R. Castro (P. vimboides).
Benjamin W. Frable, Bruno F. Melo, João P. Fontenelle, Claudio Oliveira and Brian L. Sidlauskas. 2022. Biogeographic Reconstruction of the Migratory Neotropical Fish Family Prochilodontidae (Teleostei: Characiformes). Zoologica Scripta. DOI: 10.1111/zsc.12531
The phylogeny of the ichneumonid parasitoid wasp subfamily Ateleutinae is investigated based on molecular data from five genes. A total of 36 species are included in the ingroup. Maximum likelihood analyses recovered a strongly supported monophyletic clade circumscribing the subfamily Ateleutinae. Five main clades were recovered in the subfamily, but relationships between these clades were mostly poorly supported. A new genus is identified and described:Duwalia Santos gen. nov. from Australia, which corresponds to the earliest known diverging lineage of Ateleutinae. Duwalia perula Santos sp. nov. is described and illustrated. The genus Ateleute is shown to be paraphyletic with respect to Tamaulipeca, but further studies with more intense sampling of the Neotropical fauna are needed in order to provide a comprehensive classification of the genera within this subfamily. Ateleute boitata Santos sp. nov., a morphologically aberrant species from South America, is described to highlight the morphological diversity in the genus. All Old World species of Ateleute are recovered in a single clade. Ateleute grossa is newly recorded as a parasitoid of Oiketicus kirbyi (Lepidoptera: Psychidae). Diagnoses and identification keys to the genera of Ateleutinae are provided.
Duwalia perula gen. et sp. nov. A, female habitus. B, clypeus and mandible. C, male habitus. D, propodeum. E, ovipositor sheath. F, metasomal T1. G, ovipositor tip.
DUWALIA SANTOS, GEN. NOV.
Etymology: The genus name stems from the Australian aboriginal word ‘duwal’, meaning a short spear with two barbs, and also a name for a clan from the Dua moiety. The name is a reference to the short ovipositor of D. perula, with ridges on the dorsal valve. Duwalia is to be treated as a feminine noun.
DUWALIA PERULA SANTOS, SP. NOV.
Etymology: ‘Perula’ is a Medieval Latin form for ‘pearl’, apparently derived from ‘pernula’, diminutive of ‘perna’ (the brown mussel); in reference to the type locality, Pearl Beach, in Australia. The name is to be treated as a noun in apposition.
A new phylogeny of the #parasitoidwasp subfamily, Ateleutinae, reveals its oldest member, the newly described 𝘋𝘶𝘸𝘢𝘭𝘪𝘢 𝘱𝘦𝘳𝘶𝘭𝘢, defines relationships and highlights morphological diversity with new species. Article out now in our April issue! https://bit.ly/2v2feL2